Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed usually within the kidneys. It is an increasing urological disorder of human health, affecting about 12% of the world population. It is the most common disease of the urinary tract. Kidney stones have been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney diseases, end-stage renal failure, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. It has been suggested that kidney stone may be a systemic disorder linked to the metabolic syndrome.
The symptoms of kidney stone are related to their location whether it is in the kidney, ureter, or urinary bladder.
Formation of kidney stones (calculogenesis) is a complex and multifactorial process including intrinsic (such as age, sex, and heredity) and extrinsic factors such as geography, climate, dietary, mineral composition, and water intake.