What is Kidney Stone?

Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed usually within the kidneys. It is an increasing urological disorder of human health, affecting about 12% of the world population. It is the most common disease of the urinary tract. Kidney stones have been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney diseases, end-stage renal failure, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. It has been suggested that kidney stone may be a systemic disorder linked to the metabolic syndrome.


The symptoms of kidney stone are related to their location whether it is in the kidney, ureter, or urinary bladder.

  • renal colic (intense cramping pain)
  • flank pain (pain in the back side)
  • hematuria (bloody urine)
  • obstructive uropathy (urinary tract disease)
  • urinary tract infections
  • blockage of urine flow
  • hydronephrosis (dilation of the kidney)


Formation of kidney stones (calculogenesis) is a complex and multifactorial process including intrinsic (such as age, sex, and heredity) and extrinsic factors such as geography, climate, dietary, mineral composition, and water intake.

Risk Factors

  • Lifestyle habits and dietary/nutritional factors
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Hypercalcemic disorders
  • Urine composition
  • Low urine volume
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Genetic predisposition/inherited disorders
  • Anatomical abnormalities
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Climate change
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Absence of intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria
  • Lithogenic drugs


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